Rogers identified six conditions which are needed to produce personality changes in clients: Rogers also claims that the therapeutic process is essentially the accomplishments made by the client. The client having already progressed further along in their growth and maturation development, only progresses further with the aid of a psychologically favored environment.
Two persons are in psychological contact. The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship.
The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client. If these six conditions exist and continue over a period of time, this is sufficient. These conditions can be expressed in plain English as follows: The counsellor is congruent genuine.
The counsellor feels empathy towards the client. And with deep rapport and trust, we are able to work at relational depth Mearns and Cooper, — which is where real movement happens. These are less well-known than the core conditions.
These conditions can be expressed more simply as follows: The process of constructive personality change will follow" Rogers, The counsellor makes psychological contact with the client i.
The client is incongruent vulnerable or anxious. The client receives the congruence, UPR and empathy of the counsellor. Psychological contact condition 1 can be made only if the client is capable of giving informed consent.
Barriers to this could be severe mental health issues such as active psychosis, severe learning difficulties, or attending under the influence of drugs, alcohol or prescribed medication.
If psychological contact cannot be made, then there is an ethical issue around autonomy, the ability for the client to make an informed choice in contracting with the therapist. If the client is seeking not counselling but friendship or expert advice e.
Finally, if a client is unable to trust the counsellor for example, due to transferenceor the two simply do not gel, condition 6 will not be met as the client will not feel safe enough to discuss what is really on their mind. This condition is arguably the most difficult to fulfil as it asks the counsellor both to give enough time for the client to build trust, and to be congruent enough in the relationship to explore with the client any reluctance to fully engage.Carl Rogers stated that ‘for constructive personality change to occur, it is necessary that these [six] conditions exist and continue over a period of time.' They include empathy, unconditional positive regard (UPR) and congruence.
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